Racial bias in pain assessment and treatment recommendations, and false beliefs about biological differences between blacks and whites

Authors: Sophie Trawalter, Kelly M. Hoffman, Jordan R. Axt, M. Norman Oliver

Black Americans are systematically undertreated for pain relative to white Americans. We examine whether this racial bias is related to false beliefs about biological differences between blacks and whites (e.g., “black people’s skin is thicker than white people’s skin”).

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